Changing the model of fatherhood Towards balancing parental roles and building balance between professional and family life


The subject of theoretical reflections and empirical analysis is the change within one of the key social roles played by men: the role of a father. An essential element of these transformations is the detraditionalization of the fatherhood and family model, associated with moving away from patriarchy and the emancipation of women and men from their traditional social roles. Such a change helps reconcile professional and family roles, improves the professional situation of mothers, and, above all, benefits the child, who gains a father
– a caring guardian, partner, and friend instead of a strict and absent father. Considerations on the change in the fatherhood model are based on a literature review and reinforced by a pilot study conducted through an online survey among pedagogy students regarding their preferred family model, fatherhood, and childcare. In the pilot study, 69 students participated, mostly women (89.9%). The majority (71%) indicated a partnership model, while 25% chose a mixed model. Only one person indicated a traditional model, and no one selected the reversed traditional model. Over 90% of the respondents expect equal involvement of fathers in childcare, while 10% see them in the role of “helpers.” The majority
of the respondents expect men to be regularly involved in household chores and yard work. Nearly half of the participants (N = 28) believe that a mother’s professional work positively
influences a child’s development; N = 12 think it has a negative impact, and N=10 individuals believe it is indifferent. Regarding the father’s employment, these values were similar (30, 11, 10). The most preferred forms of childcare for the respondents are daycare centers (over 70% of respondents) and home care (25%). The majority of respondents (70%) would like to have two or three children, and another 12% – four or more, indicating that the demographic decline is not the result of changing preferences but rather other obstacles.


family model; fatherhood; changing the model of fatherhood; work-life balance

Published : 2024-02-02

Ratajczak, Łukasz, & Kozłowska, A. (2024). Changing the model of fatherhood Towards balancing parental roles and building balance between professional and family life. Resocjalizacja Polska, (26), 239-254.

Łukasz P. Ratajczak 
Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu  Poland
Agnieszka Kozłowska 
Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu  Poland

CitedBy Crossref

CitedBy Scopus

Copyright Notice:

Articles are published in accordance with conditions identical to the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (also called as CC-BY) license conditions, available on and this permission applies to any language version or any later version of the license as published by the Creative Commons organization.

Author retain the copyright to the article, while at the same time he/she transfers the article property rights to the Publisher free of charge (without territorial and time restrictions).

The online edition of the Polish Journal of Social Rehabilitation is published under Open Access, which means that users can read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, and link to the full texts of these articles - are provided with full unrestricted access.

The publisher does not charge for providing access to full versions of articles nor for their use as referred to in above.