Burnout in probation officers enforcing judgements in criminal and juvenile cases


The results of the study unambiguously indicate that the phenomenon of occupational burnout affects almost half (44%) of probation officers who participated in the study. It is illustrated by the most important, global occupational burnout ratio and, additionally, its individual dimensions. The correlation between stress and occupational burnout was confirmed, which corroborates the results of studies conducted by authors such as Schaufeli and Dierendock (1995), Hart (1996), Leiter, Maslach (1997), Maslach (1998).


burnout in probation officers; correlation between stress and occupational burnout; Polish probation officers

Brown P.W., 1986, Probation Officer Burnout: an Organizational Disease/an Organizational Cure, part I, „Federal Probation”, no. 50(1).

Brown P.W., 1987, Probation Officer Burnout: an Organizational Disease/an Organizational Cure, part II, „Federal Probation”, no. 51(3).

Büssing A., Perrar K.M., 1991, Burnout und Stress. A Study on the Validity of Burnout and Stress in Nursing as Related to Gender and Occupational Position, [in:] Working conditions in hospitals and hospices, (eds.) Landau K., Gentner, Stuttgart.

Cordes C.L., Dougherty T.W., 1993, A Review and an Integration of Research on Job Burnout, „Academy of Management Review”, no. 18.

Handy C., 1987, Rodzina: pomoc czy przeszkoda?, [in:] Stres w pracy, (eds.) Cooper G.L., Pane R., PWN, Warsaw

Hart A.D., 1996, Habits of the Mind ten Exercises to Renew Your Thinking, Word, Dallas.

Holgate A.M., Clegg I.J., 1991, The Path to Probation Officer Burnout: New Dogs, Old Tricks, „Journal of Criminal Justice”, no. 19.

Kahn R.L., Byosiere P., 1992, Stress in Organizations, [in:] Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 3, (eds.) Dunette M.D., Hough J.M.R., Triandis H.C., Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Stress.

Lawshe C.H., 1975, A Quantitative Approach to Content Validity, „Personel Psychology”, no. 28.

Lewis K.R., Lewis S.L., Garby T.M., 2012, Surviving the Trenches: The Personal Impact of the Job on Probation Officers, „American Journal of Criminal Justice”.

Marzec-Holka K., 1997, Instytucja społecznych kuratorów sądowych w świetle badań, Wyższa Szkoła Pedagogiczna w Bydgoszczy, Bydgoszcz.

Maslach C., 1982, Burnout: The Cost of Caring, Engelwood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Maslach C., 1998, A Multidimensional Theory of Burnout, [in:] Theories of Organizational Stress, (eds.) Cooper C.L., Oxford University Press, New York.

Maslach C., Jackson S.E., 1981, The Measurement of Experienced Burnout, „Journal of Occupational Behavior”, no. 2.

Maslach C., Jackson S.E., 1986, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Palo Alto CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Maslach C., Leiter M., 1997, The Truth About Burnout, CA: Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.

Ogus E.D., Greenglass E.R., Burke R.J., 1990, Gender-role Differences, Work Stress and Depersonalization, „Journal of Social Behavior and Personality”, no. 5.

Patterson B.L., 1992, Job Experience and Perceived Job Stress Among Police, Correctional, and Probation/Parole Officers, „Criminal Justice and Behavior”, no. 19 (3).

Pettway C., VanDine S., 2000, One Moment in Time: Using Pagers to Measure how Parole/Probation Officers Spend Their Time, Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology, San Francisco, CA.

Schaufeli W.B., Van Dierendonck D., Van Gorp K., 1996, Burnout and Reciprocity: Towards a Dual-Level Social Exchange Model, „Work & Stress”, no. 3.

Sęk H., 1994, Wypalenie zawodowe u nauczycieli. Społeczne i podmiotowe uwarunkowania, [in:] Edukacja wobec zmiany społecznej, (eds.) Brzeziński J., Witkowski L., Wydawnictwo Edytor, Poznań–Toruń.

Simmons C., Cochran J.K., Blount W.R., 1997, The Effects of Job-Related Stress and Job Satisfaction on Probation Officer’s Inclinations to Quit, „American Journal of Criminal Justice”, no. 21(2).

Skowroński B., 2013, Inwentarz Źródeł Stresu w Zawodzie Kuratora: opis konstrukcji i własności psychometryczne, „Profilaktyka Społeczna i Resocjalizacja”, Vol. 21.

Slate, R. N., Wells, T. L., Johnson, W. W. (2003). Opening the Manager’s Door: State Probation Officer Stress and Perception of Participation in Workplace Decision Making. Crime & Delinquency, 49.

Steuden S., Okła W., 1998, Tymczasowy podręcznik do Skali Wypalenia Sił – SWS. Wydanie eksperymentalne, Zakład Psychologii Klinicznej KUL, Lublin.

Tabor R.W., 1987, A Comparison Study of Occupational Stress Among Juvenile and Adult Probation Officers, unpublished typescript, Virginia Polytechnical Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA.

Thomas R.L., 1988, Stress Perception Among Select Federal Probation and Pretrial Services Officers and Their Supervisors, „Federal Probation”, no. 52(3).

Tucholska S., 2003, Wypalenie zawodowe u nauczycieli: psychologiczna analiza zjawiska i jego osobowościowych uwarunkowań, Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski, Lublin.

Whisler P.M., 1994, A Study of Stress Perception by Selected State Probation Officers [unpublishing], University of North Florida, Tampa, FL.

Whitehead J.T., 1981, The Management of Job Stress in Probation and Parole, „Journal of Probation and Parole”, no. 13.

Whitehead J.T., 1985, Job Burnout in Probation and Parole: Its Extent and Intervention Implications, „Criminal Justice and Behavior”, no. 12(1).

Whitehead J.T., 1986, Job Burnout and Job Satisfaction Among Probation Managers, „Journal of Criminal Justice”, no. 14.

Zimbardo P.G., Gerrig R.J., 2012, Psychologia i życie, PWN, Warsaw.

Published : 2016-12-13

Skowroński, B. (2016). Burnout in probation officers enforcing judgements in criminal and juvenile cases. Polish Journal of Social Rehabilitation, (11), 185-209. https://doi.org/10.22432/pjsr.2016.11.13

Bartłomiej Skowroński 

CitedBy Crossref

CitedBy Scopus

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright Notice:

Articles are published in accordance with conditions identical to the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (also called as CC-BY) license conditions, available on http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ and this permission applies to any language version or any later version of the license as published by the Creative Commons organization.

Author retain the copyright to the article, while at the same time he/she transfers the article property rights to the Publisher free of charge (without territorial and time restrictions).

The online edition of the Polish Journal of Social Rehabilitation is published under Open Access, which means that users can read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, and link to the full texts of these articles - are provided with full unrestricted access.

The publisher does not charge for providing access to full versions of articles nor for their use as referred to in above.